Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl.(Beautyberry species) is commonly used in Indian traditional medicine. Thus an ex vivo antibacterial activity studies on ethanolic (SEE) and aqueous (SAE) stem back extracts of C. macrophylla against some gram positive and gram negative strains was done using Kirby bauer agar disc diffusion assay techniques. SEE, showed moderate growth inhibitory activity against all the bacterial strains, but SAE was exceptionally inactive against all strains except Salmonella typhimurium. The phytoconstituents in SAE might be responsible for the inhibition of S. typhimurium growth.
Being As a treasure house of various therapeutic phytochemicals, plants have been known reported to be an integral part of traditional medicinal system  in many cultures. Indigenous peoples living on their traditional territory histories largely rely on ethnomedicinal plants for healthcare and they are therefore rich in ethnopharmacological knowledge [2, 3]. The use of natural products with therapeutic properties is as ancient as human civilization because medicinal since plants are capable of synthesizing an overwhelming variety of low molecular weight organic compounds called secondary metabolites, usually with unique and complex structures [4-9]. With so many chemotherapeutic agents coming up especially from natural sources, there is the growing need to ascertain some of these claims[10,11].
Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. of family Verbenaceae, is an indigenous plant of India, have with a wide spectrum of therapeutic properties. Its leaves are reported to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects[4,12], while roots have are anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects . Its Sstems of C. macrophylla hasd been evaluated for its anti-fungal activity and results are very significant . In the current research work, we have evaluated Thus following its potentials we hereby report the antibacterial activity studies of stem back extracts of Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. stem extracts.
Materials & Methods
Collection & Authentification of Plant Material: A voucher specimen of the authenticated plant material has been preserved in the Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, IFTM, Moradabad for future references[4, 12-14].
Preparation of Extracts: The coarsely powdered stems were extracted using acqueous water and ethanol as solvents. Standard extraction procedures were adopted[5, 12-15].
Gram-positive bacteria used: Streptococcus pyogens (NCIM 2608), Bacillus cereus (NCIM 2797), Micrococcus luteus (NCIM 2704), Staphylococcus epidermidis (NCIM 2493), Clostridium sporogens (NCIM 2559), Streptococcus faecalis (NCIM 2404), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2079), Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 2439).
Gram-negative bacteria used: Agrobacterium tumifaciens (NCIM 2942), Klebsiella pneumonia (NCIM 2957), Salmonella typhimurium (NCIM 2501), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM 2863), Serratia marcesens (NCIM 2078), Enterobacteria aerogens (NCIM 2693), Proteus vulgaris (NCIM 2813), Escherichia coli (NCIM 2831).
Kirby-Bauer Agar Disc Diffusion Assay: Nutrient agar media was taken in a pre-sterilized Petri-dish. After that the microorganisms were spreaded over the cooled nutrient agar media with the help of L- shaped glass rod. The sterilized empty disc (7 mm) was saturated with 200µl/disc and 400µl/disc of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. macrophylla Vahl. stem and allowed to dry and then introduced on the upper layer of the seeded agar plate. Similarly disc of ciprofloxacin (10mg/disc) was placed on the seeded agar plate and incubated at 370C for 24 hr. The diameters of zone of inhibition (mm) were recorded and compared with standard drug ciprofloxacin[16-24].
Results & Discussion
Ethanolic(SEE) and aqueous(SAE) stem extracts of Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. stems were prepared and evaluated in-vitro for their antibacterial activity against various some gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. Results of antibacterial activity of SEE & SAE against the test bacteria are shown in Table 1 & Table 2.
See Illustration 1 and 2
Results shown that ethanolic extract(SAE SEE) is active against both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains even at a concentration of 200 µg/disc when compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin. Maximum zone of inhibition of 17mm was obtained when SEE reacted with SEE against Bacillus subtilis. Surprisingly, aqueous extract (SAE) was inactive against all the bacterial strains tested gram negative Salmonella typhimurium, causative organism for gastroenteritis in humans and other mammals with symptoms resembling typhoid fever. It can conclude here that the aqueous extract must be containing some unique anti-salmonella compounds, which may be having a unique action against this bacterium, and the ethanolic extract of C. macrophylla. may have a general broad spectrum.
Authors would like to express our gratitude towards the management committee of IFTM university for providing laboratory facility for conducting this research project. Author Rajeev K Singla is grateful to Department of Science & Technology, Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India for providing Young Scientist Fellowship(SR/FT/LS-149/2011).
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Source(s) of Funding
IFTM, Moradabad, India had financially supported this research project. Author Rajeev K Singla is receiving Young Scientist Fellowship from Department of Science & Technology(Ministry of Science & Technology), Government of India.
Authors declare no competing interests
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