Original Articles

By Dr. Tajinder Kaur , Dr. Veena Aseeja , Prof. Sujata Sharma
Corresponding Author Dr. Tajinder Kaur
MMIMSR, Mullana Ambala, - India
Submitting Author Dr. Veena Aseeja
Other Authors Dr. Veena Aseeja
Obs and Gynae MMIMSR Mullana Ambala, - India 160104

Prof. Sujata Sharma
GMCH, Amritsar, - India


Thyroid dysfunction, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

Kaur T, Aseeja V, Sharma S. Thyroid Dysfunction in Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding. WebmedCentral OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY 2011;2(9):WMC002235
doi: 10.9754/journal.wmc.2011.002235
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Submitted on: 22 Sep 2011 01:51:04 PM GMT
Published on: 23 Sep 2011 06:51:45 PM GMT


Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is one of the most frequently encountered conditions in gynecology being principal diagnosis in at least 10% of all new outpatients both in hospital and private practice. The diagnosis depends upon exclusion of general and local disease. It is recognized universally that menstrual disturbances may accompany and even may precede thyroid dysfunction .In the present study thyroid status of patients presenting with dysfunctional uterine bleeding was assessed by TSH assay.


Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is one of the most frequently encountered conditions in gynecology and is defined as abnormal bleeding from uterus in absence of organic disease of the genital tract.
It is recognized universally that menstrual disturbances may accompany clinical alterations in thyroid function, and every clinician has encountered altered menstrual patterns among women suffering from hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism may result in menstrual disturbances. Hyperthyroidism reduces menstruation and hypothyroidism causes menorrhagia.
Hyperthyroidism in contrast is associated with a menorrhagia and oligomenorrhoea and the decrease in flow is proportional to the severity of the thyrotoxicosis.

Materials and Methods

For the purpose of study 100 premenopausal women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding were evaluated for their thyroid status by determining their serum. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with the help of panthozyme TSH assay .Patients with TSH level >7IU/ml were considered to have hypothyroidism and those with <0.4IU/ml were considered to have hyperthyroidism.
Out of 100 patients studied, 14 had hypothyroidism,one patient had hyperthyroidism and rest 85 were euthyroid.(Table1)
Of 14 hypothyroid patients, 9(64.3%) had menorrhagia, 3(21.4%) had oligomenorrhea and one patient with hyperthyroidism was found to have hypermenorrhagia.(Table2)
Hypothyroid patients with TSH levels below 13.5µIU/ml had either menorrhagia or metrorrhagia, but as TSH rises upto 20µIU/ml ,oligomenorrhea was the cheif complaint.(Table3) 9(64.3%) hypothyroid patients had proliferative endometrium, 3(21.4%) had endometrial hyperplasia and rest 2(14.3%) had secretory endometrium.


Thyroid disorders are more common in women with menstrual irregularities as compared to general population. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism may result in menstrual disturbances.
Scot and Mussey observed abnormal menstrual pattern in 56% of myxedematous patients. Menorrhagia and metrorrhagia alone or combined conteststituted abnormal pattern in 75% of patients(4).
Wilansky et al showed a prevalence of 22% of early hypothyroidism by thyrotropin releasing hormone test in menorrhagic women, that is much higher than that found in general female population .(5)
Joschi et al showed 44% of the women with menstrual abnormality were apparently euthyroid. Menstrual irregularity was significantly more frequent in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as compared to control cases and in more than 45% of cases this preceded the appearance of goiter or clinical sign and symptoms.(6)
Our study too had apparently euthyroid patients none showing signs and symptoms of thyroid disease but with TSH assay 15 patients were found to have subclinical disease.
Menstrual disturbance in thyrotoxicosis is two and half times more frequent than in normal general population. (7)t
Our study showed menstrual irregularities to be significantly more frequent in patient with thyroid dysfunction concluding that systematic study of thyroid function in dysfunctional uterine bleeding is warranted.
Goldsmith demonstrated a 70% occurrence of ovulatory failure in patients with hypothyroidism while 20% had normal ovulation. 72.2% of patients with thyrotoxicosis had ovulatory cycles.(8)
Our study showed 85.7% of hypothyroid patients had anovulatory cycles. 14.3% had ovulatory cycles.
These studies shows that thyroid disorder are more common in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism may result in abnormal uterine bleeding.Thyroid function should be done in patients presenting with dysfunctional uterine bleeding.


The menstrual irregularities are significantly more frequent in patients with thyroid dysfunction and may precede thyroid dysfunction. Further systematic study of thyroid dysfunction in dysfunctional uterine bleeding is warranted.


1. Isadore N. Rosenberg. Menstrual instability in thyroid disease. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1969; 12(3): 755-70.
2. Cope E. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Br Med J 1971; 2(762): 631-2.
3. Ralph CB and Morris ED. The menstrual pattern in hyperthyroidism and subsequent post therapy hypothyroidism. Surg Gynec Obstet 1955; 100: 19-26.
4. Scot JC and Mussey E. Menstrual patterns in myxedema. Am J Obstet Gynaecol 1964; 90: 161-65.
5. Wilansky DL, Griesman B. Early hypothyroidism in patients with menorrhagia. Am J Obstet Gynaecol 1989; 160:673-7
6. Joschi JV, Bhandarkar SD, Chadha M, Balaiah D, Shah R. Menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may precede thyroid dysfunction on goiter. J Postgrad Med 1993; 39(3): 137-41.
7. Krassas GE, Pontirides N, Kaltsas J, Papadopoulou P, Batrinos M. Menstrual disorders in thyrotoxicosis. Clin Endocrinol 1994; 40 (5): 641-44.
8. Goldsmith RE, Sturgis SH, Leiman J and Standbury JB. J clin Endocrinology 1952; 12: 846-55.

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