Research articles

By Prof. Ashokraj S Kandagal , Mr. Mahadev C Khetagoudar
Corresponding Author Prof. Ashokraj S Kandagal
Department of Zoology, Comm., BHS Arts & TGP Science College,nJamkhandi-587 301, Karnataka IndianCell: +91-9886985107nE- mail: n - India 587 301
Submitting Author Mr. Mahadev C Khetagoudar
Other Authors Mr. Mahadev C Khetagoudar
Pesticide Residue Testing and Quality Analysis Laboratory , University of Agril. Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005 - India 580 005


Crude aqueous extracts, Clerodendron inerme, Spodoptera litura, Larvae, pupae

Kandagal AS, Khetagoudar MC. Biological Potency of Crude Aqueous Extracts of Clerodendr on Inerme (Verbenaceae) in Management of Lepidopteron Pest S.litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). WebmedCentral ZOOLOGY 2011;2(12):WMC002793
doi: 10.9754/journal.wmc.2011.002793

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License(CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Submitted on: 26 Dec 2011 12:05:36 PM GMT
Published on: 26 Dec 2011 02:22:56 PM GMT


A study was undertaken to find out the toxic effects of crude aqueous leaf extracts of Clerodendron inerme (Verbenaceae) on Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on castor (Ricinus communis L.)  plants. Extracts at different doses viz., 1, 2, 3, 5, 7.5, 12.5, 15 and 17.5 % were tested against S. litura following the treatment on fourth instar larvae. All concentrations showed insecticidal activity in a dose dependent manner. Results demonstrated the higher percent mortality during prepupal and pupal stage than that of during fourth to sixth instar larval stages. The percent total mortality (larval, prepupal, pupal and adult) revealed positive relationship between the % concentrations of extract Vs the mortality. It was seen that percent total mortality was progressively increased from 1 to 12.5 % concentration treatment and thereafter the percent mortality remained almost 87 to 88 percent. Results of adult emergence inhibition indicated that the EI50 of C. inerme was more effective at 3.16 percent. Interestingly the calculated EI90 value was 30.98 percent. Therefore it is concluded that, this plant has a potential to serve as an alternate biopesticide in the management of lepidopteron pest.


Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous insect pest widely distributed throughout Asia(Hadapad et al. 2001). It has a wide range of hosts, feeding on 112 species world wide, of which 40 species are known from India (Singh et al.1998; Paulraj 2001). The pest, to some extent, can be controlled by synthetic chemicals (Krishnaiah et al. 1976) but sole dependence on their use, particularly in vegetable crops such as okra, is not desirable due to health hazards and other associated problems. Traditional farmers have been practicing synthetic pesticides to eliminate S. litura and hence it has developed resistance against almost all the commonly using pesticides. Human health problems and environmental hazards caused by the indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides during past three decades have leads to the scientists to look for less persistent and biodegradable alternatives (Muraleedharan and sheeladevi., 1992; Sahayaraj et al., 2003). Moreover, integrated pest management (IPM) has revived the interest in plant-based insecticides which offer an ecologically and economically viable alternative in managing pests below the economic injury levels (Govindachari., 1992). Plants are rich sources of natural substances that can be utilized in the development of environmentally safe methods for insect pest control (Sadek., 2003). Crude plant extracts often consist of complex mixtures of active compounds, they may show greater overall bioactivity compared to the individual constituents (Chen et al., 1995). Certain plant families, particularly Meliaceae, Rutaceae, Asteraceae, Labiateae, Piperaceaea and Annonaceae are viewed as exceptionally promising sources of plant-based insecticides (Isman., 1995). Bio-pesticidal and antifeedant activity of Adhatoda vasica leaf extracts on Spodoptera littoralis has been reported by Sadek, M.M., (2003). The deleterious effects of crude plant extracts on insects are manifested in several ways, including toxicity (Hiremath et al., 1997) and feeding inhibition (Klepzig and Schlyter., 1999; Wheeler and Isman., 2001).
The review of literature indicates that exploration of the use of Clerodendron inerme, a hedge as well as ornamental plant extracts have not been done to the greater extent. Only few workers have tried to explore the insecticidal activity of this plant. The extracts of C. inerme, has been shown as effective against, lepidopteran insects (Holihosur et al., 1993). In view of the above, this study was aimed to found out the insecticidal activity of C.inerme leaves aqueous exracts on S. litura F. following the treatment on fourth instar larvae under laboratory conditions.


Collection and rearing of pest
Egg masses of S. litura were collected from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) and castor (Ricinus communis L.) fields and leaves with egg masses were transferred on to the filter paper and kept in petri dishes under laboratory conditions (27º C ± 10º C temperature; 65 - 70% RH, 11 L : 13 D). Newly hatched first instar larva were reared in plastic trough (28 x 21 x 9 cm) on castor leaves. Laboratory emerged fourth instar larvae (S. litura were used for this experiment, as they are considered to be more destructive stages and easy to handle because of their bigger size.
Plant material
Healthy plants of C.inerme Gaertn (Family: Verbenaceae) was collected from College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. The plant material was collected in the morning hours.
Preparation of crude aqueous extract
The fresh leaves were washed thoroughly with distilled water and dried by pressing the leaves in the folds of blotting paper. 250 gm of leaves were autoclaved under 15 lbs pressure for 15 minutes and then homogenized and squeezed through cheese cloth and filtered then the filtrate was made up to 500 ml. The extract was considered as 50 percent stock solution and used for bioassay studies.
Bioassays studies
Two ml of extract were sprayed separately with different dosages on 20 fourth instar larvae of S.litura with the help of a glass automiser and untreated checked larvae were sprayed with 2 ml of distilled water alone. The treatment was replicated thrice. The sprayed larvae were transferred to plastic jar lined with moistened Whatman (No.1) filter paper and fed with sufficient quantity of castor leaves, observations were recorded.
Observations recorded
Mortality was recorded at 24 hours of intervals. Larval, pupal, adult mortality and deformities in the surviving treated individuals were carefully observed and recorded. percent mortality observed in the control groups if any were corrected by using Abbott’s formula (Abbott, 1925).
Adult emergence inhibition (EI) effect
Efficacy and residual activity of the larvicide were determined from the post-treatment counts of larvae and pupae in treated and control sites as compared to the pre-treatment populations. Emergence inhibition (EI) was calculated using Finney’s formula
(Finney 1971).
Data analysis
The interpretation of analytical data was performed by application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using a factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD).


Different concentrations of the crude extracts of C. inerme (1 to 17.5%) were used for treating the S.litura following the treatment on fourth instar larvae. The results presented in table1 revealed that, higher percentage mortality during prepupal and pupal stage than that of fourth to sixth instar larval stages. At 1% treatment, the percent mortality of larva (fifth and sixth instar) as well as pupa (prepupal and pupal) was 20 and 23 percent respectively. Nine times higher mortality was observed upon 2 percent treatment. Similarly the 3 percent concentration also caused as much as 11 fold increase in percent mortality of pupal stage. The percent larval mortality in 7.5 to 17.5% concentration was 11.66 percent at each concentration, whereas the pupal mortality was 65 and 66 percent respectively. As a result the total pupal mortality remained between 65 to 75 percent. Interestingly 12.5 and 17.5% concentration produced 5 and 10 percent deformed adults respectively.
The results of the percent total mortality (larval, prepupal, pupal and adult) demonstrated positive relationship between % concentrations of extract Vs the mortality (Table 2). It was seen that percent total mortality was progressively increased from 1 to 12.5% treatment and thereafter the total percent mortality remained almost 87 to 88 percent for 15 and 17.5 % treatment respectively.
The present experiment was also extended to determine the adult emergence inhibition (EI) of the larvae treated with crude aqueous extracts of C. inerme (table 3). The results revealed that the EI50 of C. inerme was more effective at 3.16 percent. Interestingly the calculated EI90 value was 30.98 percent.


The observations revealed that during the life cycle of S.litura the early instars i.e. first to third, were highly sensitive and susceptible against environmental insults and other chemical environment. Moreover the early instars scrap the leaf surface and caused less damage to the plants. Those that pass through early instars i.e. fourth instar, the larvae were sturdy and withstand hostile environment, as well as other chemical environment may be through the development of resistance. Therefore freshly moulted fourth and successive instars were used for present investigation.
The present work demonstrated the effects of plant crude extracts on major agricultural pest, S. litura Fab. Similar results were reported in crude extract with specific mode of action against insects (Tewary et al., 2005) and many researchers have reported crude extracts on S. litura (Raja et al. 2005; Kamaraj et al. 2008).
The toxic effect of the crude extracts during the pupal stage was significantly higher and this is in accordance with the findings of Pavela (2004) on S. littoralis, who observed pupal mortality of 40.2 and 40.8% at 10 and 5% concentrations, respectively in the crude extract of Origanum benedictus. It may also be noted that the death during the prepupal stage was higher than that of pupae. The prepupal stage is not a distinct stage from that of last instar (in this case sixth instar). During this stage they do not feed and the body shrinks in size and they were in quiescent state. It is also possible that the various biochemical machinery of the prepupae might have reduced both qualitatively and quantitatively thereby rendering the prepupae more vulnerable to the toxicants. However those survived and entered into pupal stage were deformed and could not emerge as normal adults, if emerged the adults were also deformed.
The EI50 value of 3.16 % was observed in crude extract of C.inerme which showed significant reduced larval population. On the basis of the percent larval mortality results it may be argued that the lesser effect of the crude extract during larval stage may be due to the development of requisite biochemical strategies against the various biochemical components present in the crude extracts tested in this study. This is in accordance with the findings of Oigiangbe et al. (2007) who obtained EI50 value at 3.5% concentration with leaf extract of Alstonia boonei on Sesamai calamistis. Pavela (2004) observed EI50 value of 3.74 % in Melissa officinalis on S. littoralis. The adult emergence inhibition activity of C.inerme is also comparable to different species of plant extract in different families (Muthukrishnan et al. 1999; Pushpalatha and Muthukrishnan., 1999).
We can conclude that this study suggested the crude extracts of C.inerme plants belonging to families taxonomically possesses toxic principles and could be a potential crop protectants against S. litura, a serious pest of most important commercial crops. It appears that these plants contain different chemicals that act upon target cells effectively. The activity of this extracts also suggests a future exploitation of the materials in to potential insect management chemicals with a minimum environmental impact. These botanicals can be produced at the farmers level and their application is also easy. It also suggests that by a single application of these compounds a complete success of the insect control can be achieved.


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Source(s) of Funding

Authors are thankful to UGC, New Delhi and the authorities of Comm., BHS Arts and TGP Science College, Jamkhandi, India for selecting me under FIP programme. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. S. N. Holihosur, Professor, P G Dept. of Studies in Zoology, Karnataka University, Dharwad, India for providing necessary laboratory facilities and valuable guidance throughout the entire study.

Competing Interests



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