My opinion

By Dr. Deepak Gupta , Dr. Shushovan Chakrabortty
Corresponding Author Dr. Deepak Gupta
Self, - United States of America
Submitting Author Dr. Deepak Gupta
Other Authors Dr. Shushovan Chakrabortty
Self, - United States of America


Antibiosis, Microbiome, Probiosis

Gupta D, Chakrabortty S. Antibiosis: "Dear Microbiome, Are You Dead Yet?" Probiosis: "Maybe Never, Must Be Never.". WebmedCentral INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2021;12(9):WMC005739

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License(CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Submitted on: 29 Aug 2021 12:46:29 AM GMT
Published on: 15 Sep 2021 07:30:53 AM GMT

My opinion

Since watching movie "Kiss the Ground" [1], it has been fascinating personal enterprise to foresee personal "Poop in the Loop" [2]. However, neither the ground has been kissed nor the poop has been looped. Henceforth, the deeds which could not be completed are being documented as the deeds which should have been accomplished because even when the act of defecation is considered soiling, the feces are no longer returned to soil as soilage because they are left to trot as sewage. It is a shame that a natural animal product has been converted into a modern human waste due to the needs of urbanized humanity wherein it is convenient to flush out feces and even urine with available water [3-4] because it is difficult to find the land to plant feces and even urine [5-7].

Fecal Euphoria

It is often bewildering why comprehensive bowel emptying secondary to adequate defecation induces a feeling of euphoria [8] while incomplete bowel emptying lingers on as a feeling of distress. It may be easy to biochemically test if salivary endorphin concentrations variably increase from pre-defecation level to post-defecation level depending on the completeness of intervening bowel movement. Physiologically, it may be assumed that comprehensiveness of bowel emptying is euphoric due to relief from in vivo fecal material distressingly expanding bowel wall. However, evolutionarily it may be envisaged that post-defecation euphoria may be similar to post-mating euphoria and hence if post-mating euphoria serves the evolutionary purpose of sustaining the act of mating for survival of gene, post-defecation euphoria may be serving the evolutionary purpose of sustaining act of defecation for survival of soil. Post-defecation euphoria becomes perplexing only when urbanized living considers soilage product as waste sewage thereby restricting the euphoric affect to being just a relief from the distress of fecal "waste" distending in vivo.

Fecal Guilt

Once the shadow of doubt over the purpose of feces clears, then the cloud of guilt casts shadow over the act of defecation especially when living in modernized urban surroundings and even within ever-modernizing rural communities. This guilt sprouts from the difficulty in returning feces to soil because modern living not only binds human bodies and minds to the rules of modern humanity but also human feces to modern sewage. It is easier said than done when attempting to embrace composting toilets, composting bins and composting pits while living as per bylaws covering the owned or rented apartments, condominiums, and housing societies. Therefore, it is more than likely that evolutionary understanding of fecal euphoria may most likely tighten inescapable shackles of fecal guilt when the established urban environment for fecal sewage conflicts with the challenger natural habitat for fecal soilage.

Fecal Probiosis

The only saving grace can be fecal probiosis considering that modern science has recognized the therapeutic effects of feces in the form of fecal capsules and fecal transplant. It was not long time ago that smelling feces and bowel gas was fictionally but contrastingly depicted in The Last Emperor [9] and Click [10] for medical and comical reasons respectively. It is not explicitly discussed how often sexual practices lead to inadvertent ingestion of fecal particles during oral-anal contact and penile-anal contact followed by oral-penile contact especially when routinely using toilet paper for potentially incomplete perineal cleansing post-defecation [11-14]. Unlike movie professionals who may choose thorough bowel and perineum preparation before depicting these sexual contacts onscreen, off-screen sexual lives may not always afford and accrue time for thorough bowel and perineum preparation. Interestingly, can human children having anal stage of psychosexual development be analogous to an evolutionary remnant corresponding to rabbits reprocessing their feces by feeding on feces to extract the nutrients which may have remained unprocessed by their gut during the first transit across their gut? Additionally, hand-anal contact followed by hand-oral contact may be one of the most common inadvertent exposure to fecal particles especially when hands may not have been cleaned thoroughly after perineal cleansing by water post-defecation [15-16]. The sum total is that irrespective of modern humanity desperately wanting to avoid exposure to feces [17-19], modern humans are inadvertently exposed to fecal probiosis one way or another which may not be a bad thing after all especially when COVID-19 pandemic has drastically reduced humanity's oral-nasal exposure to probiosis while hiding behind the masks and inside the houses away from schools and workplaces which might have been the major sources of pathogens to keep humanity's immune systems vibrantly alive and kicking [20-28]. Now unless gender-specific underpants demonstrate highly variable absorbance [29-30], it appears to be left up to bowel gas passed and fecal aerosols generated during the naked privacy of washrooms and bathrooms until modern humanity learns to nurture and feed the beast (flora and fauna [31-32]) within their gut to keep gut and themselves happy and healthy without worrying about eradicating whatever lies and brews within symbiotically.

Probiotic Nose

It may feel worrisome that our noses may be losing their probiotic sheen under the hot and humid microenvironments of our masks. To further complicate our probiotic noses, the call for antibiosis of our noses [33-35] at least while admitted in hospitals may increase the complexity of our nasal probiosis. It is understandable to hold our noses accountable for the rampage that our bodies have seen during COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is inexcusable to turn our noses deplorable despite our noses being the natural protector of our beings during our natural evolution as living things while harbingering the germs which mostly dial up our strengths rather than weakening our overprotected bodies if left unexposed to natural immunogens. The fear's fear is boundless when science of understanding the boundaries keeps evolving and thus always redefining the boundaries. There are so many unanswered questions. Is it all in the nose with differences in structure of nose and nasal immune-physiology reflecting the evolution of various human races [36-42] according to their geographical climate and their cultural behaviors including food habits which have naturally selected them to inhabit their native geographical locations over the millenniums? Is it all in the nose when it differentially behaves once evolutionarily fixed native nasal pathophysiology is exposed to alien geographical climates and cultural behaviors including food habits especially as related to head and body coverings controlling nasal micro-climate and immunity inducing foods affecting nasal microbiome? Essentially, when aiming at whole-body probiosis including but not limited to breathing probiosis, feeding probiosis, breeding probiosis [43-46], and touching probiosis, there may appear to be certain ways with underexplored and unclear scientific data for eating food with hands, breathing fresh air in woods, probiotic hand soap and probiotic nasal drops because time may have come to rejuvenate our body especially our hands and our noses after the chemical soaps kept them clean [47-49] during pandemic and the therapeutic masks kept them inactivated during pandemic.


Summarily, since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, masked humanity may have somewhat lost oral-nasal probiosis secondary to hot and humid microenvironments created under the masks. To replenish our probiosis levels back to pre-pandemic levels, it may be time to consider the alternate routes of probiosis in case preventative, "curative" and "immunogenic" mask trinity is needed for longer periods to come. In contrast to developed countries' zealots [50-52] who want to trap (and potentially thereafter unknowingly inhale those trapped [53]) unaesthetic food odor and fecal smell as well as in contrast to developing countries' zealots who want to eradicate fecal probiosis to overcome "idiopathic short stature" [54-56], it may be time to revive acceptability of noses' inadvertent exposure to not only the "antibiotic" chemicals but also the "probiotic" biologicals within food odor and fecal smell. Down the line, it may be interesting to see if physiologically non-sterile urine [57-60] too evolves as urinary probiosis only after thorough scientific research investigations and irrefutable results if any. 


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